Concept of management has grown over the years and many new theories and models have been invented and being practiced today in the world. Management is everywhere whether it is home, shop, office, business, Government organizations, private organizations, state institutions, State departments or you name any place anywhere and the difference is only the scale, size and type of management. Various ideas and theories came into the market. Theory of scientific management was invented by Taylor, theory of authoritarian, democratic, participative and laissez faire were presented, theory of process management came in to being, theory of X and Y manager was presented etc. it was said that ultimate management is contingency management. It was said management is nothing except the coaching and training and manager is coach. It was said that management is management by objectives. It is also being said that Pakistan’s problems are linked to bad management and right management can put the country on the path of progress and development. In many discussions at media, it was said that energy crisis is because of bad management and it is not supply and demand problem but it is financial management issue. If manager is very tough, it is said that he/she is authoritarian and if he/she is too human, it is said that he/she is not a manager but a good human being. Sometimes it is said that dictatorship style of management is really required for development of Pakistan and on this theory Army rules 30 years in Pakistan but Pakistan has not progressed well even in dictatorial leaderships and country is ridden with many crisis like energy crisis, water scarcity crisis, transportation crisis, Gas crisis, corruption crisis, management crisis and we can say that country is encircled with many crises and it is all because of the continuous poor governance and management and country culture has reached to a stage where competent and honest manager is considered as foolish manager.
Awareness in Pakistan on management rose because of rising business and management graduates in Pakistan and old styled managers are now being replaced with new styled managers equipped with management knowledge and skills. Now question is which management style is good for Pakistan. The simplest definition of management is to get things done effectively and efficiently. Effectively means that goal should achieved and efficient means that the work should be done timely and cost effective way.
The management is done by managers and selection of manager is the most important task whether the manager is being selected for private, Government or for Non-Government organizations, departments and bodies. In small organizations and set ups, the managers are not qualified and they learn through practice and mostly copy the management style of the owner and if owner abuses, the manager abuses also and their concept of management is coercive and the manager is not selected on the basis of education and management skills but usually he/she is relative of the owner or has some relationship with the owner of the firm. The management process and organization is very weak and the work is being done through physical interactions and encounters and the person favorite to owner will stay longer and privileged while others have to leave in the long run. Then in medium sized organization, there is mix of personal and system management. Some managers are hired on the basis of education, skills and experience and some through relationships but managers coming through relationships have more power and in fact rule the organization. In medium sized organizations some organizations are not local but subsidiary of the international and global organization and they have professional management and run by rules, regulations, systems and standards but even in these organizations some key managers are hired through back door contacts. In large organizations, the selection of management is done through a certain process but some of the key management is hired through contacts and mostly they are children of influential people because to gain power in local culture, the contacts are very important for safety and security of the organizations. Mostly the management is professional and run the system through rules and regulations and each function is run through a policy.
In Government, the selection of managers is mixed and some are selected on merit and some are selected through contacts but mostly the managers are selected through contacts without any merit system and Governance of the country has deteriorated because the managers are selected through contacts without considering the merit, competency and skills and therefore the Governance is getting poor day by day.
The management system is better and successful if the managers are selected through merit on the basis of education, competency and skills. There should be laws in the country for fair and meritorious selection of managers in private, Government and non- government sectors so that professional management may bring change in the system and put the country and organizations on the path of professional management.